Japan’s Pioneering Lunar Mission: SLIM Lander and the Innovative LEV-2 Rover

Japan’s Pioneering Lunar Mission: SLIM Lander and the Innovative LEV-2 Rover

The race to explore and understand the moon has seen nations and private entities launching missions to our closest celestial neighbour.

Among the frontrunners in this renewed lunar exploration is Japan, whose ambitious lunar projects aim to contribute to our understanding of the moon significantly.

Its most recent endeavour is the SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) mission, which seeks to demonstrate Japan’s capabilities in soft lunar landings and introduces an innovative rover designed in collaboration with a toymaker.

Japan’s SLIM, or Smart Lander for Investigating Moon, represents a leap in the nation’s lunar exploration. Launched aboard the H-2A rocket, this spacecraft is set to be the first Japanese entity to achieve a soft landing on the moon’s surface. SLIM is designed as a demonstration of precision landing technology. Traditional lunar landings have often adopted a “land where it’s easiest” approach. In contrast, SLIM is designed to land precisely where scientists want it to, with an impressive accuracy range of just 100 meters.

The technology behind this could prove to be groundbreaking. During its descent, SLIM will use a repurposed facial recognition system, a technology more commonly associated with smartphones and security systems, to identify lunar craters. SLIM can determine its exact location by comparing its observations with the SELENE (Kaguya) lunar orbiter mission data. For context, the Apollo 11 Eagle lunar module had an accuracy range that spanned kilometres.

SLIM’s journey to the moon will span several months, during which it will orbit and survey its designated landing site within the moon’s Shioli Crater. This preparatory phase ensures that the lander’s descent and the subsequent operations of its rover companion, LEV-2, are executed with the mission team knowing as much information as possible.

Japan – LEV-2 Rover

Accompanying the SLIM lander on its lunar mission is the Lunar Excursion Vehicle 2 (LEV-2). At first glance, LEV-2 might seem like a simple metal sphere, barely more significant than a tennis ball. However, once it reaches the moon’s surface, this tiny explorer will showcase its transformative capabilities, adapting its shape to navigate the challenging lunar terrain.


The development of LEV-2 was a collaborative effort, combining the expertise of JAXA, toy manufacturer Tomy, Sony Group, and researchers from Doshisha University. Drawing inspiration from children’s toys, the rover employs shape-changing mechanics, allowing it to traverse the fine regolith of the lunar surface. Nestled between its two halves are two cameras and a stabilizer, essential tools that will aid LEV-2 in navigating its surroundings and capturing images of the SLIM lander and the surrounding lunar landscape.

After SLIM’s landing, LEV-2 is set to be released from the lander, initiating its exploration phase. Using its unique design, the rover will roll, hop, and manoeuvre around, transmitting valuable data back to Earth. Its operational time is estimated to be approximately two hours.

While countries like the USA and Russia have historically dominated lunar missions, Japan’s recent missions underscore its commitment to carving out its niche in this domain.

The precision landing technology of SLIM and the innovative design of LEV-2 are clear indicators of Japan’s intent to push the boundaries of what’s possible in lunar exploration.

The significance of these missions extends beyond national pride. They contribute to a global understanding of the moon, offering unique perspectives and data that complement other international efforts. The Shioli Crater, SLIM’s landing site, is exciting to scientists. Exploring this region can provide insights into the moon’s geological history and possibly shed light on the broader history of our solar system. Furthermore, the collaborative nature of the LEV-2’s development serves as a model for future space missions.

Japan’s commitment to precision, as demonstrated by the SLIM lander and the fusion of playfulness and technology in the LEV-2 rover, are not just achievements in their own right; they represent a vision for the future of space exploration. While the SLIM mission aims to expand our understanding of the moon’s Shioli Crater, the broader implications of its success will resonate across future lunar missions. It will reinforce the importance of precision in space missions, potentially influencing the design and objectives of future lunar endeavours.

The LEV-2 rover, with its toy-inspired mechanics, serves as a reminder that innovation can come from the most unexpected sources.


  • Japan’s SLIM mission aims to achieve a precise soft landing on the moon’s Shioli Crater.
  • Accompanying SLIM is the innovative LEV-2 rover, designed with toy manufacturer Tomy and tech giant Sony.
  • Inspired by children’s toys, the rover’s design allows it to navigate the lunar surface with unique shape-changing mechanics.
  • These missions underscore Japan’s growing prominence in lunar exploration and the potential for interdisciplinary collaboration in space technology.
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